Looking for attentionlong term

Added: Lakisa Torrance - Date: 20.10.2021 13:57 - Views: 42947 - Clicks: 9895

Dynamic control of representations in visual working memory View all 10 Articles. Evidence for long-term memory LTM -based control of attention has been found during the execution of highly practiced multi-step tasks. In the present study, this question was investigated with a dual-task paradigm. Participants executed either a highly practiced visuospatial sensorimotor task speed stacking or a verbal task high-speed poem recitingwhile maintaining visuospatial or verbal information in WM.

revealed unidirectional and domain-specific interference. Neither speed stacking nor high-speed poem reciting was influenced by WM retention. Stacking disrupted the retention of visuospatial locations, but did not modify memory performance of verbal material letters. Reciting reduced the retention of verbal material substantially whereas it affected the memory performance of visuospatial locations to a smaller degree. We suggest that the selection of task-relevant information from LTM for the execution of overlearned multi-step tasks recruits domain-specific WM.

Humans can efficiently perform highly complex tasks every day without much effort. Examples are driving Looking for attentionlong term bicycle or a car, reading a newspaper, or singing along a favorite song. The ease with which these tasks are performed should be due to a substantial long-term memory LTM contribution e. Such highly LTM-controlled skills are often viewed as automatized. Theories of automatization and skill proceduralization claim that automatized processes are executed without requiring any attention or WM resources.

According to the two-process theory of information processing Schneider and Shiffrin, abautomatic processes do not need attention or conscious control and can be performed interference-free in parallel with other processes. The concept of direct parameter specification Neumann,postulates that relevant action parameters are specified directly via the conjunction of sensory input information and LTM-retrieved skill information.

The instance theory of automatization Logan,assumes that an automatized action is based on direct-access retrieval of the strongest associated LTM instance. Finally, researchers focusing on skill argue that procedural knowledge is not constantly consciously controlled and does not rely on WM e. However, this theoretical sketch seems not to be as clear as traditionally thought.

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Recently, we investigated how LTM is involved in the control of attention and eye movements in a complex multi-step task Foerster et al. In Foerster et al. In speed stacking, pyramids of plastic cups have to be stacked up and down as fast as possible in a predefined order. Eye movements—overt markers of visual attention e. With learning, participants became faster and performed fewer fixations. We suggested that Looking for attentionlong term control of visual attention and eye movements becomes less sensory-based and more LTM-based during learning.

This means that LTM sequentially guides attention and eye movements to task-relevant positions in the environment. This suggestion was further supported by the fact that the extensively trained participants performed a highly similar task-related sequence of eye movements when performing the task in complete darkness Foerster et al.

Therefore, attention is still required. However, the allocation of attention and eye movements during this well-practiced multi-step sensorimotor task in dark must be grounded in LTM. Does this imply that working memory WM processes are not involved? More precisely, does LTM directly control where to attend and where to look next or are respective target locations first activated in visual WM? Baddeleyfor instance, stated that the integration of perception, LTM, and action into the multi-component WM model is an important next step as it is not clear yet whether and how LTM-based tasks require WM processes.

According to Baddeley ; Baddeley and Hitch, WM consists of multiple components for temporary storage and manipulation of limited information. One passive store, the articulatory loop, is concerned with verbal information. Another passive store, the visuospatial sketchpad, is concerned with visuospatial information. An active control system, the central executive, manipulates incoming and stored information. A fourth component—the episodic buffer—was added later Baddeley, That is a multidimensional store receiving input from both the verbal and the visuospatial store.

It is connected to LTM, and controlled by the central executive Baddeley et al. Finally and suggested by theories of automatization e. Indeed, several investigations of well-learned multi-step tasks such as tea-making Land et al. Attention during visual-search tasks seems to be only influenced by WM items if the search target varies from trial to trial e.

However, if the search target stays the same over several trials, WM maintenance and visual search do not interfere. Complementary, if the repeated targets are used as distractors in subsequent trials, performance is disturbed Schneider and Shiffrin, ab ; Kyllingsbaek et al. Woodman et al. In summary, from highly controlled laboratory tasks also argue for direct LTM-control of visual attention without the involvement of visual WM. On the other hand, there is growing consensus that selective attention is strongly related to WM processes e. Selective visuospatial attention usually determines which information of the environment will access WM Awh et al.

Not only encoding in WM but also WM maintenance has been linked to attention e. It has been suggested that covert attention might be involved in visuospatial rehearsal. This assumption was supported by behavioral e. Finally, it has been postulated that attention helps retrieving information from WM e. Given this link between visual attention and the use of WM information see also, Schneider,again the question emerges whether retrieving information from LTM for attentional control can bypass WM.

Our approach attempted to tackle this question on the basis of a dual-task paradigm that combines WM retention with the execution of a well-practiced multi-step task. More specifically, participants had to perform either a verbal task high-speed poem reciting or a sensorimotor task speed stackingwhile maintaining either verbal letters Looking for attentionlong term visuospatial locations material in WM. We chose high-speed poem reciting reciting a poem by heart as fast as possible and speed stacking stacking up and down cups as fast as possible because both multi-step tasks can be learned easily and rapidly and provide short and comparable execution times.

Based on the considerations outlined above, two opposing predictions can be made. If LTM controls attention directly without the involvement of WM, no interference should arise between highly practiced multi-step tasks and WM-span tasks. Such an interference could be either global or domain-specific in nature, i.

Ten students from Bielefeld University, Germany, participated in the experiment. Seven of them took part in a speed-stacking automatization study Foerster et al.

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Participants' age ranged from 21 to 32 years with a mean of All participants had either normal or corrected-to-normal vision, were naive with respect to the aims of the study, and were paid for their participation. The study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants gave their informed consent to be included in the study. A notebook with a Participants were seated in front of the screen and the Looking for attentionlong term equipment was placed in-between them and the screen.

The distance to the screen was approximately 60 cm. Stimuli were displayed on a black background. For the visuospatial WM-span task, gray filled white squares again subtending approximately 2. Neither a letter nor a location was repeated within a sequence. The poem consisted of four quatrains with rhyming couplets and iamb as measure see Appendix.

We analyzed the data with repeated measures analyses of variance. In case of ificant effects, data was analyzed further with planned t -tests. The within-subject variables were WM-span task none, verbal, and visuospatial and multi-step task none, reciting, and stacking. WM-span condition was blocked starting with a multi-step task without WM-span task single-task condition as a first block, and the multi-step tasks with verbal and visuospatial WM-span task dual-task conditions as second and third block.

The order of blocks 2 and 3 was counterbalanced across participants. The multi-step task conditions were intermixed within the two latter WM-span blocks. The first block of the experiment no WM-span task consisted of six stacking and six reciting trials. Each of the other two WM-span blocks verbal and visuospatial consisted of 18 experimental trials, with six trials each for the three multi-step task conditions none, reciting, and stackingadding up to a total of 48 trials. Two practice trials one verbal WM-span trial and one visuospatial WM-span trial, both without multi-step task at the beginning of the second block were added to ensure that the participants followed the instruction.

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The dependent variables were percentage correct for the WM-span tasks as well as completion time and error rate for the speed-stacking task and the poem-reciting task. WM-span performance was considered correct when all memory items were reported in the correct order.

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Respectively, speed stacking and poem reciting were considered correct when all actions and words were correct. The performance measure of the multi-step tasks was the duration of a complete stacking or reciting sequence. We defined a stacking error as one or more cups falling or sliding down. Skipping, substituting, adding, or transposing of one or more words was defined as a reciting error.

Each experimental manipulation was preceded by a speed-stacking and a poem-reciting training period as well as a refreshment day directly before the experimental day. Speed stacking consists of a fixed sequence of stacking up and down pyramids of plastic cups as fast as possible. The speed-stacking training phase consisted of 14 days with 45 min practice each day details are reported in Foerster Looking for attentionlong term al.

The poem-reciting training lasted 50 min on a single day consisting of 10 min silent memorization and 40 min reciting at maximum speed. This poem-reciting training was preceded and followed by reading aloud the poem three times. On the refreshment day, both stacking, and reciting had to be performed as fast as possible for 30 min each. The last day was the experimental day and started with the first block of high-speed stacking and high-speed poem reciting without parallel WM-span task.

The instruction was again to perform as fast as possible. This initial calculation of the participants' performance in stacking and reciting served as a baseline for the multi-step tasks. The trial speed of both multi-step tasks was measured by a timer and then transferred and stored on the notebook. The accuracy was marked by the experimenter. Afterwards, the dual-task trials started with a written instruction appearing on the screen. Each trial started with a left mouse button press followed by the sequence of memory items, either four consonants or three locations.

This difference in of to-be-remembered items was necessary to ensure equal task difficulty see section. Each item was shown for ms with an inter-stimulus interval ISI of ms.

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Following the stimulus sequence, a written message was shown on the screen for 20 s informing the participants about the activity they had to accomplish within this delay none, reciting, or stacking. A tone aled the start and the end of the delay. Participants were instructed to be as accurately as possible in the memory task. For the verbal WM-span test, a central frame was shown on the screen and participants had to type in the letters in the correct order via the keyboard. Spatially distributed frames were shown on the screen for the visuospatial WM-span test, and participants had to select the locations via the mouse cursor in the correct order and confirm each selection with a left mouse click.

Looking for attentionlong term

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Long-term memory-based control of attention in multi-step tasks requires working memory: evidence from domain-specific interference